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Toolbox Library, primary resources thematically organized with notes and discussion questionsOnline Seminars, professional development seminars for history and literature teachersLiving the Revolution: America, 1789-1820
Living the Revolution: America, 1789-1820
Topic: Predicaments of Early Republican LifeTopic: ReligionTopic: PoliticsTopic: ExpansionTopic: Equality
Topic: Equality
Overview of Living the Revolution
Resource Menu: Equality
Text 1. Founding Fathers on Equality
Text 2. Founding Fathers on Slavery
Text 3. African Americans on Slavery
Text 4. Woman's Role
Text 5. Women on Equality
•  Reading Guide
» Link

Text 6. Summing Up
RESOURCE MENU Reading Guide » Link

Link Page
5.  Women on Equality
- "Let Democrats . . . ," poem, Newark Centinel of Freedom, 1797
- A Lady, The Female Advocate, 1801, excerpts
- Abigail Adams to Judge F.A. Vanderkemp, the "black swan" letter, 3 Feb. 1814

    Abigail Adams
Abigail Adams
"Let Democrats":

The Female Advocate: PDF file*

Abigail Adams: PDF file*


"Let Democrats": Prof. Catherine Lavender, CUNY-College of Staten Island

The Female Advocate: National Humanities Center

Abigail Adams: National Humanities Center


If you choose to print these texts:
-   Print directly from the sites.
-   Length: ? ("Let Democrats": ? pp., Fem. Advocate: 6 pp.,
    A. Adams: 2 pp. PDF file*


"Liberty Rhetoric" and Nineteenth-Century American Women, from CUNY-College of Staten Island

Overview, "The American Woman of the Early Nineteenth Century," from the Connor Prairie Museum, Indiana

Brief biography of Abigail Adams, from the Massachusetts Historical Society

Biography of Abigail Adams, from the Unitarian-Universalist Historical Society

"On the Equality of the Sexes," by Judith Sargent Murray, 1790, from the National Humanities Center - PDF file*, 8 pages

Biography of Judith Sargent Murray, from the Murray Society

Other essays by Judith Sargent Murray, from the Society

Benjamin Rush, "Thoughts upon Female Education," 1787, from the University of Chicago ClassWeb

Jennifer Manion, "The Young Ladies' Academy of Philadelphia: Attitudes toward the Formal Education of Women in America, 1790-1800," Penn History Review, Spring 1997

Mary Wollstonecraft, "A Vindication of the Rights of Woman," 1792 [Britain], from the Constitution Society

Olympe de Gouges, "Declaration of the Rights of Women," 1791 [France], from CUNY-College of Staten Island

Illustration, "Keep within Compass," ca. 1785-1805, from CUNY-College of Staten Island

Hannah Foster, The Coquette, 1797 [novel]

The Diary of Martha Ballard (diary: 1785-1812), from, Harvard University

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Toolbox: Living the Revolution: America, 1789-1820
Predicaments | Religion | Politics | Expansion | Equality

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Toolbox Library: Primary Resources in U.S. History and Literature
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Revised: May 2003